International Institute for Population Sciences

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The Institute had completed 7 Research Projects during 2008-2009. There are 19 on-going research projects, which were initiated during the year 2008–2009 and are in different stages of completion. Also, 3 new research projects are being taken up during the year 2008-2009.  There are 11 on-going research project funded by the outside agencies. The most prominent among them are the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), District Level Household Survey under Reproductive and Child Health project (DLHS-RCH) and YOUTH in India. The Institute has undertaken one new project funded by outside agency

 I. National Family Health Survey-4:    (Click to see Website)      

In 2014-2015, India will implement the fourth National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). Like its predecessors, NFHS-4 will be conducted under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, coordinated by the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, and implemented by a group of survey organizations and Population Research Centres, following a rigorous selection procedure. Technical assistance for NFHS-4 will again be provided by ICF International, USA with the major financial support from the United States Agency for International Development and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

In addition to the 29 states, NFHS-4 will also include all six union territories for the first time and will also provide estimates of most indicators at the district level for all 640 districts in the country as per the 2011 census. NFHS-4 sample size is expected to be approximately 568,200 households, up from about 109,000 households in NFHS-3. This is expected to yield a total sample of 625,014 women and 93,065 men eligible for the interview. In these households information on 265,653 children below age 5 will be collected in the survey. Data will be collected using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) on mini-notebook computers.

NFHS- will provide updates and evidence of trends in key population, health and nutrition indicators, including HIV prevalence. Moreover, the survey will cover a range of health-related issues, including fertility, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, perinatal mortality, adolescent reproductive health, high-risk sexual behaviour, safe injections, tuberculosis, and malaria, non-communicable diseases, domestic violence, HIV knowledge, and attitudes toward people living with HIV. The information will enable the GOI to provide national and international agencies to monitor and evaluate policies and programmes related to population, health, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS.

 II. National Family Health Survey-3:    (Click to see Website)      

The third National Family Health Survey, 2005-06 (NFHS-3) is currently in the last phase. NFHS-3 is carried under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), Government of India. The International Institute for Population Sciences has been appointed as the nodal agency responsible for coordinating the project.  Macro International, USA is providing the technical assistance for the project, and USAID, UNICEF, DFID, the Gates Foundation, UNFPA, and Government of India are funding the NFHS-3.  Along with fertility, mortality, maternal and child health, family welfare and many process indicators, NFHS-3 also provides information on several new and emerging issues such as adolescent reproductive health, high risk sexual behavior, HIV prevalence amongst adult men in the group of 15-54 years and women in the age group of 15-49 years.  The survey provides state level estimates of demographic and health indicators by urban/rural residence. NFHS-3 also provides all the demographic and health indicators for eight cities of Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Meerut, Mumbai and Nagpur, and their slum and non-slum areas.

National fact-sheet and state level fact sheets for all the 29 states in India, presenting key indicators were published by December 2006.  NFHS-3 National Report in two volumes along with key finding report was published in October 2007, and the survey findings were disseminated in the national seminar.  NFHS-3 state level reports for 29 states are published. NFHS-3 state level findings were disseminated in 22 states during April 2008 to February 2009.

Four subject reports on the topics of “A Profile of Youth in India”, “Health and Living Conditions in Eight Indian Cities”, “Nutrition in India” and “Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in India” are prepared and disseminated in seminar in New Delhi on September 11, 2009.

III  District level household project under Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) project & Facility survey-3, India    (Click to see Website)

The District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS) was initiated in 2007 with a view to assess the utilization of services provided by government health care facilities and people’s perception about the quality of services. The DLHS-3 is the third in the series of district surveys, preceded by DLHS-1 in 1998-99 and DLHS-2 in 2002-04.  DLHS-3, like other two earlier rounds, is designed to provide estimates on important indicators on maternal and child health, family planning and other reproductive health services. In addition, DLHS-3 provides information on important interventions of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Unlike other two rounds in which only currently married women age 15-44 years were interviewed, DLHS -3 interviewed ever-married women (age 15-49) and never married women (age 15-24).

The sample size among the districts in the country varies according to their performance in terms of Ante-Natal Care (ANC), institutional delivery, immunization, etc. and it was fixed based on information related to such indicators from DLHS-2. For low performing districts, 1500 Households (HHs), for medium performing districts, 1200 HHs and for good performing districts, 1000 HHs were fixed as sample size.

The survey used two-stage stratified random sampling in rural and three-stage stratified sampling in urban areas of each district. The information from 2001 Census was used as sampling frame for selecting primary sampling units (PSUs). In rural areas, all the villages in the district were stratified into different strata       based on population /HH size, percentage of SC/ ST population, female literacy (7+), etc. The required number of villages from each strata were selected with probability proportional to size (PPS). In selected primary sampling units (villages), household listing was done and required numbers of households were selected using systematic random sampling.        

For larger villages (more than 300 HHs) segmentation was carried out.  In case of 300 to 600 HHs, two segments of equal size were made and one was selected using PPS. For PSUs having more than 600 HHs, segments of 150 HHs were created depending on the size and then two segments were selected using PPS. 

In case of urban areas, numbers of wards were selected using PPS at first stage. In a selected ward, one enumeration block from 2001 census was selected again using PPS. Procedure for segmentation, household selection, etc., was same as in the case of rural PSUs.  

The uniform bilingual questionnaires, both in English and in local language, were used in DLHS-3 viz., Household, Ever Married Women (age 15-49), Unmarried Women (age 15-24), Village and Health facility questionnaires.

For the first time, population-linked facility survey has been conducted in DLHS-3. In a district, all Community Health Centres (CHCs) and District Hospital (DH) were covered. Further, all Sub-centres (SC) and Primary Health Centres (PHC) which were expected to serve the population of the selected PSU were also covered. There were separate questionnaires for SC, PHC, CHC and DH.  They broadly include questions on infrastructure, human resources, supply of drugs & instruments, and performance. 

DLHS-3 covered about seven lakh sample households from 612 districts of the country.

Progress :- 
The progress of DLHS-3 is listed below:-

  • The data collection work for 601 districts of 34 States & Union territories in DLHS-3 have already completed in 2008.
  • State Fact Sheets of all 34 States of DLHS-3 have been printed & dispatched to the concerned officials as well as to Ministry.
  • District Facts Sheets of 599 districts of 34 States of DLHS-3 have been printed & dispatched to the concerned officials as well as to Ministry. The printing work of remaining 2 districts of Andaman & Nicobar Island is under progress.
  • Reports containing fact sheet of India & 34 States and Union Territories have been printed.  
  • DLHS-3 data are ready for use.
  • All key indicators of district, state and national level are ready. 
  • State Level Report of Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh have been printed. State Level Report of Bihar, Uttarakhand and Jammu & Kashmir are in the press for printing.
  • One national seminar on preliminary results of DLHS-3 had been conducted on 8th December 2008 at New Delhi. One State Level Dissemination Workshop for Andhra Pradesh of DLHS-3 had been conducted on 4th November 2009 at Tirupati during IASP Conference. One more State Level Dissemination Workshop for Punjab & Chandigarh of DLHS-3 had been conducted on 27th November 2009 at Chandigarh. The DLHS-3 dissemination for remaining states will be conduct after printing of State Reports respectively.

Expected date of completion : - Remaining State reports will be ready on or before 31st March 2010.

  • The draft National Report, hard copies of 6 State Reports (Punjab, Haryana,
    Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh) sent to Ministry.
    The State Report of remaining states will be ready by March 2010.

IV.     Youth in India: situation and needs study

The Institute in collaboration with the Population Council, New Delhi had successfully completed a pioneering research to document young people’s transition to adulthood in six states of India, namely Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Bihar. The specific objectives of the study are:

1. To identify key transition facing youth, including education and livelihood opportunities and experiences
2. To provide evidence at state level on the magnitude and patterns of sexual and reproductive practices in and outside marriage, and related knowledge, decision-making and attitude among youth.
3. To identify the key factors underlying their sexual and reproductive health, knowledge, attitudes and life choices.
4. To disseminate findings in a variety of forums and to a range of stake-holders and make recommendations for programming for youth.
5. To provide opportunities to and build capacity of researchers interested in pursuing research on issues pertaining to youth

Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used covering behaviors and experiences of young people on a number of issues; ranging from schooling, marriage and sexual behavior. Gender role attitudes and relations with parents were also be studied. The MacArthur and Packard Foundations provided the funding for this project.

Publication and dissemination of fact Sheet: The key indicators of the study are being prepared in a fact sheet for the respective states. The fact sheets for all six states have been printed and disseminated. Some of the findings have been widely disseminated in various news papers and television programs.

State Reports: The report for all the six states of India, namely, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan were printed and disseminated at the respective state capitals. A separate dissemination was also done for media in each of the state. On average 150 persons including programmers, policy makers, researcher in government and non-government sectors, NGOs, health officials etc. participated in each of the state level seminar. A national report was prepared and available for researcher. 

National report is available at http://www.iipsindia.org/pdf/India%20Report.pdf.

Unit data are available in CD for researchers and can be obtained on sending the data request form. For state level reports write to director@iips.net.

V      Strengthening state plans for human development (SPHD)

Seminar organized at IIPS

The International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) with financial assistance           from UNDP, New Delhi and UNFPA, New Delhi organized a two-days seminar     on ‘Exploring Key Measurement Issues in Millennium Development Goals in Districts in India” during 12-13 December, 2008 at IIPS, Mumbai.  A total of 125        delegates attended the seminar.  In all, 24 papers were presented in six technical    sessions.  Dr. N. Tumkaya, UNFPA country representative, India, was the Chief      guest and Dr. Ashish Bose delivered the key note address at the seminar.  The        seminar addressed number of methodological issues for measuring and        achieving the MDG targets and came up with policy recommendation for Indian       programmes.

VI.     Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

The main aim of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) is to establish systematic surveys to monitor adult tobacco use and to evaluate progress in implementing tobacco control interventions under the Bloomberg Global Initiative to reduce tobacco use. Since there is no standard global adult tobacco survey that consistently tracks prevalence of tobacco use (smoking and smokeless as well), exposure to secondhand smoke, cessation, risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes, exposure to media and price and taxation issues, which are critical measures for tobacco control program and policy development. The project is sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and WHO SEARO, New Delhi with technical support from CDC, Atlanta, U.S.A and Research Triangle Institute (RTI), North Carolina.

Under the overall umbrella of the GATS project mentioned above, the main aim of the GATS-India is to carry out an Adult Tobacco Survey in India at regional levels which include all the 29 states and union territories of Chandigarh and Pondicherry covering about 99.92 percent of the total population according to the 2001 Census of India. The major objectives of the survey are to obtain sufficiently reliable estimates of prevalence of tobacco use (smoking and smokeless tobacco as well), exposure to secondhand smoke, cessation etc., for both males and females at the national level and for each of the six regions classified by place of residence of the respondents (urban/rural).
The specific objectives of GATS-India are as follows:

  • Provide estimates of the levels of tobacco use, and smoking, second hand exposure, and cessation attempts among men and women separately for urban and rural areas of India, a country as a whole.
  • Provide estimates of the levels of tobacco use, and smoking, second hand exposure, cessation attempts among men and women in each geographical region for urban and rural areas.
  • Provide estimates of the levels of tobacco use, and smoking, second hand exposure, cessation attempts among men and women for all 29 states and two Union Territories.
  • Provide estimates of the levels of tobacco use, and smoking, second hand exposure, cessation attempts among men and women by selected background characteristics at national, and regional level

Like other large scale surveys conducted in India, entire country has been grouped in the following 16 groups. Each group will be assigned to one Research Agency for conducting fieldwork. In addition, keeping in view the weather condition prevailing during the data collection (October 2008 to February 2009) , fieldwork has been phased out. Around 17 states/UTs will be included in first phase and around 16 states/UTs to be covered in second Phase. It may be mentioned that Uttar Pradesh and Assam which a sample size of around 5000 in each state will be covered in two phases, an identified portion in each phase.

The total target sample size at national level is 70,802, including 42,647 in rural areas and 28,155 in urban areas.  With the assumption of target sample size of average 30 completed interviews per Primary Sampling Unit (PSU), GATS-India will cover 2,366 PSUs nationwide (1,423 rural and 943 urban). It has been decided that this survey would be conducted on digital formats through HP iPAQs handheld devices. It has been considered by the Government and agreed that though handheld devices are being used for the first time on large scale surveys in India, it would have several advantages.

Data collection work for GATS-India is already completed in all the 31 states/UTS. The National fact sheet and national report is expected to be ready by April 2010.

VII.    ENVIS Centre on Population and Environment
Funded by Ministry of Environment and Forests
Co-ordinator: Prof. R.B.Bhagat

   ENVIS Publications

The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, under the Environmental Information System (ENVIS) programme has set up an ENVIS Centre on Population and Environment at IIPS. The centre is in existence since 2004. The centre collects, collates and disseminates data on various aspects of population and environment relationship such as population growth and land use, urbanisation and air pollution, household environment and morbidity and mortality etc.   The centre maintains a website http://www.iipsenvis.nic.in connected to NIC server.  It also brings out a quarterly bulletin on population and environment. Apart from regular activities of web based dissemination and publishing of bulletins, the centre has published a book on Population and Environment Linkages and an e-book containing extensive abstracts for about 500 research articles in the areas of population and environment.

  The main activities of the ENVIS Centre on Population and Environment are as follows:
  • Creation of website on Population and Environment.
  • Monthly compilation of News items on Population and Environment
  • Identification of information/data gaps in the specified subject areas and action taken to fill these gaps.
  • Database creation on Population and Environment to be put on website.
  • Publication of ENVIS newsletter on quarterly basis.
  • To establish and operate a distributed clearinghouse to answer and channel queries related to the allocated subject.
  • To establish linkages with information users, carriers and providers from among the government, academia, business and non- governmental organizations.



VIII.   Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) Project

Although adult health and ageing is a subject that is increasingly being investigated, there are currently no comprehensive and internationally comparable survey data in India that cover and connect the full range of topics necessary to understand the economic, social, psychological, and health aspects of adults and the ageing process. Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) is designed to fill this gap.

LASI focuses on the health, economic, and social well-being of India's elderly population. LASI is conceptually comparable to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States and is appropriately harmonized with other health and retirement studies, including its sister surveys in Asia – such as the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) – thereby allowing for cross-country comparison. LASI also takes account of features unique to India, including its institutional and cultural characteristics.

LASI will be a national landmark in scientific research that will allow a better understanding of India’s adult health problems and population ageing processes and will inform the design of appropriate evidence-based policies for adults and older people. We will build on the success of the LASI pilot survey and implement the first two waves of a large-scale, national and state representative panel survey on the health, economic status, and social behaviors of older people in India, with sufficient statistical power to test hypotheses in subpopulations of interest. LASI data will advance scientific knowledge and inform policymakers in India and elsewhere. Our public, internationally harmonized data will allow for cross-national comparative research studies on ageing.

We will field the full-scale, national LASI survey in 29 states and two union territories, with a self-representing sample in four metropolitan cities of India. The survey instrument will be based on the pilot survey instrument, which was carefully designed to collect information compatible with other Longitudinal Ageing Surveys, but that would also be appropriate to key contextual characteristics of India. The target sample for LASI is non-institutionalized Indian residents aged 45 and older and their spouses (irrespective of age). We will draw 45, 000 age-qualifying individuals from a stratified, multistage, area probability sampling design. The proposed sample is planned to be representative of India and 29 states and two union territories, and it will be sufficiently powered to make meaningful inferences at both national and state levels.

The LASI team in IIPS successfully conducted the 2010 LASI pilot survey in the four states of Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, and Rajasthan to test survey tools and protocols and to learn lessons for the main wave. The analysis of LASI pilot data revealed insightful evidence on reported and measured health status, social network characteristics, income and consumption, retirement, and pensions.

More information on LASI.

 

IX.  Study of global Ageing and Adult (SAGE) - India 2007

The International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai in collaboration with the World Health organization, Geneva is undertaking the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2007 in India.  SAGE is part of global longitudinal study implemented in six countries – China, India, Ghana, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.  In India, SAGE is being conducted in six states – Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.  SAGE will cover a sample of 10600 households across the six states.

SAGE will follow-up the same PSUs and the sample households covered across these six states in the World Health Survey (WHS), India, 2003.  SAGE is expected to run for up to 10 years with follow-up waves for every two years.

The primary objective of SAGE is to assess health and well-being of the elderly persons in age 50 and above and their social determinants.  SAGE aims to gather evidence base on socioeconomic background, health state description, burden of disease, health care utilization, quality of life and well-being.  Besides these self-reported information based on interview, SAGE adopt improved health measurement techniques by using a range of biomarkers-blood pressure, lung-function, vision, grip strength, time walk, a battery of cognitive tests, anthropometry and blood test for anaemia, diabetes, heart disease, and hepatitis-B.

SAGE Field work and data entry have been completed during 2007-08.  Currently, data processing is underway and the report for first wave is expected to be completed by June 2010.

Funding for SAGE is being provided by the World Health Organization, Geneva and USAID, New Delhi.

X.  Concurrent Evaluation of National Rural Health Mission
Funded by Ministry of Health and family Welfare
Co-ordinators : R.B.Bhagat, Usha Ram, D.A. Nagdeve. H. Lhungdim, Abhishek Singh and Manoj Alagrajan

The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched by the Honourable Prime Minister on 12th April 2005, seeks to provide accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population with special focus on 18 states including Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and North-Eastern states. The Mission aims to achieve infant mortality rate of 30 per 1000 live births, maternal mortality 100 per 100 thousand live births and total fertility rate (TFR) 2.1 by the year 2012. To achieve these goals, Mission envisages increasing spending on health care from 0.9 percent of the GDP to 2-3 percent of the GDP during 2005-2012. The Mission has undertaken several architectural corrections of the health system to enable and promote policies that strengthen public health management and service delivery within the country. It also envisages revitalizing the health systems through decentralized management at the local level and addresses issues related to sanitation and hygiene, nutrition, safe drinking water, women and vulnerable groups, and regional disparities in health care provisions. The Mission is likely to be completed by the year 2012. The objective of the Concurrent Evaluation is to assess the reach of NRHM activities to the rural communities. The aim is to get various indicators about implementation of health care programmes which will be helpful to policy makers and programme managers in effective implementation of NRHM. The concurrent evaluation has been carried out in all States and UTs covering 197 selected districts in the first round of evaluation. IIPS has been appointed as Nodal Agency of the Concurrent Evaluation of NRHM.

 
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